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Our current list of Internet addiction brain studies. Without exception, all studies have found addiction-related brain changes in Internet addicts. This review of the literature makes a compelling argument for Internet porn addiction as a subtype of Internet addiction Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update (2015). The review also critiques two recent headline-grabbing EEG studies which purport to have "debunked" porn addiction. Also see:

First section: Internet addiction brain studies:

  1. Influence of excessive internet use on auditory event-related potential (2008)
  2. Decision-making and prepotent response inhibition functions in excessive internet users (2009)
  3. Gray Matter Abnormalities In Internet Addiction: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study (2009)
  4. Effect of excessive Internet use on the time–frequency characteristic of EEG (2009)
  5. An event-related potential investigation of deficient inhibitory control in individuals with pathological Internet use (2010)
  6. Impulse inhibition in people with Internet addiction disorder: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study (2010)
  7. Differentiation of Internet addiction risk level based on autonomic nervous responses: the Internet-addiction hypothesis of autonomic activity (2010)
  8. Increased regional homogeneity in internet addiction disorder a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (2010)
  9. Reduced Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptors in People With Internet Addiction (2011)
  10. Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder. (2011)
  11. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests (2011)
  12. P300 change and cognitive behavioral therapy in subjects with Internet addiction disorder: A 3 month follow-up study (2011)
  13. Male Internet addicts show impaired executive control ability evidence from a color-word: Stroop task (2011)
  14. Pornographic Picture Processing Interferes with Working Memory Performance (2012)
  15. Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event related potentials P300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction (2012)
  16. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study (2012)
  17. Reduced Striatal Dopamine Transporters in People with Internet Addiction Disorder (2012)
  18. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: Possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI (2012)
  19. Impaired inhibitory control in internet addiction disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (2012)
  20. Comparison of Psychological Symptoms and Serum Levels of Neurotransmitters in Shanghai Adolescents with and without Internet Addiction Disorder: A Case-Control Study (2013)
  21. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction (2013)
  22. Impaired Error-Monitoring Function in People with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related fMRI Study (2013).
  23. Effects of Internet Addiction on Heart Rate Variability in School-Aged Children (2013)
  24. An Error-Related Negativity Potential Investigation of Response Monitoring Function in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder (2013)
  25. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder (2013)
  26. Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction (2014)
  27. Brains online: structural and functional correlates of habitual Internet use (2014)
  28. Impaired frontal-Basal Ganglia connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction (2014)
  29. Prefrontal Control and Internet Addiction A Theoretical Model and Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings (2014)
  30. Neural responses to various rewards and feedback in the brains of adolescent Internet addicts detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (2014)
  31. Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients (2014)
  32. Disrupted Brain Functional Network in Internet Addiction Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study (2014)
  33. Higher Media Multi-Tasking Activity Is Associated with Smaller Gray-Matter Density in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (2014)
  34. Blunted feedback processing during risk-taking in adolescents with features of problematic Internet use (2015)
  35. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults (2015)
  36. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction" (2014)
  37. New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco-genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction (2015)
  38. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Internet Addiction (2015)
  39. Aberrant corticostriatal functional circuits in adolescents with Internet addiction disorder (2015).
  40. How Has the Internet Reshaped Human Cognition? (2015)
  41. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function (2015)
  42. Neural substrates of risky decision making in individuals with Internet addiction (2015)
  43. Relationship between peripheral blood dopamine level and internet addiction disorder in adolescents: a pilot study (2015)
  44. Problematic internet use is associated with structural alterations in the brain reward system in females. (2015)
  45. Working memory, executive function and impulsivity in Internet-addictive disorders: a comparison with pathological gambling (2015)
  46. Disrupted inter-hemispheric functional and structural coupling in Internet addiction adolescents (2015)
  47. Electrophysiological studies in internet addiction: A review within the dual-process framework (2015)
  48. Biological basis of problematic internet use (PIN) and therapeutic implications (2015)
  49. Impaired inhibition and working memory in response to internet-related words among adolescents with internet addiction: A comparison with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (2016)
  50. Deficit in rewarding mechanisms and prefrontal left/right cortical effect in vulnerability for internet addiction (2016)
  51. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults (2016)
  52. Problematic Internet Users Show Impaired Inhibitory Control and Risk Taking with Losses: Evidence from Stop Signal and Mixed Gambles Tasks (2016)

Second section: Internet video-game addiction brain studies:

  1. Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game (1998)
  2. Dopamine genes and reward dependence in adolescents with excessive internet video game play (2007)
  3. Specific cue reactivity on computer game related cues in excessive gamers (2007)
  4. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction (2008).
  5. The effect of excessive internet use on N400 event-related potentials (2008)
  6. The effect of methylphenidate on Internet video game play in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2009)
  7. Computer and video game addiction-a comparison between game users and non-game users (2010)
  8. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (2010)
  9. Altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in internet game overusers: a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study (2010)
  10. Changes in Cue Induced Prefrontal Cortex Activity with Video Game Play. (2010)
  11. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. (2011)
  12. Cue induced positive motivational implicit response in young adults with internet gaming addiction (2011)
  13. Enhanced Reward Sensitivity and Decreased Loss Sensitivity in Internet Addicts: An fMRI Study During a Guessing Task (2011)
  14. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play (2011)
  15. Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: Do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions? (2011)
  16. The neural basis of video gaming (2011)
  17. Influence of dopaminergic system on internet addiction (2011)
  18. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction (2012)
  19. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents. (2012)
  20. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting state brain activity in internet gaming addicts. (2012)
  21. Error processing and response inhibition in excessive computer game players: an event-related potential study (2012)
  22. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence. (2012)
  23. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents) (2012)
  24. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers (2012)
  25. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts (2012).
  26. A voxel based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts (2012)
  27. Cognitive biases toward Internet game-related pictures and executive deficits in individuals with an Internet game addiction (2012)
  28. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction (2013)
  29. Cue reactivity and its inhibition in pathological computer game players (2013)
  30. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction (2013)
  31. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction (2013).
  32. Cognitive flexibility in internet addicts: fMRI evidence from difficult-to-easy and easy-to-difficult switching situations (2013)
  33. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (2013)
  34. Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction (2013)
  35. Reward/punishment sensitivities among internet addicts: Implications for their addictive behaviors (2013).
  36. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (2013)
  37. Just watching the game ain't enough: striatal fMRI reward responses to successes and failures in a video game during active and vicarious playing (2013)
  38. What makes Internet addicts continue playing online even when faced by severe negative consequences? Possible explanations from an fMRI study (2013)
  39. Voxel-level comparison of arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (2013).
  40. Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder (2013)
  41. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives (2013)
  42. Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study (2014)
  43. The prefrontal dysfunction in individuals with Internet gaming disorder: a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (2014)
  44. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study (2014)
  45. PET imaging reveals brain functional changes in internet gaming disorder (2014)
  46. Brain correlates of response inhibition in Internet gaming disorder (2014)
  47. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in on-line game addiction (2014)
  48. Physiological arousal deficits in addicted gamers differ based on preferred game genre (2014)
  49. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging aspects between internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder (2014)
  50. Virtual reality therapy for internet gaming disorder (2014)
  51. Abnormal gray matter and white matter volume in 'Internet gaming addicts' (2014)
  52. Altered cingulate-hippocampal synchrony correlate with aggression in adolescents with internet gaming disorder (2014)
  53. Impaired risk evaluation in people with Internet gaming disorder: fMRI evidence from a probability discounting task (2014)
  54. Reduced fiber integrity and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder (2014)
  55. Assessment of in vivo microstructure alterations in gray matter using DKI in internet gaming addiction (2014)
  56. Decreased functional connectivity in an executive control network is related to impaired executive function in Internet gaming disorder (2014)
  57. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with internet gaming addiction (2014)
  58. A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder (2014)
  59. Differences in functional connectivity between alcohol dependence and internet gaming disorder (2015)
  60. Core brain networks interactions and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder individuals in late adolescence/early adulthood (2015)
  61. Altered gray matter density and disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala in adults with Internet gaming disorder (2015)
  62. Resting-state regional homogeneity as a biological marker for patients with Internet gaming disorder: A comparison with patients with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls (2015)
  63. Altered reward processing in pathological computer gamers: ERP-results from a semi-natural Gaming-Design (2015)
  64. Striatum morphometry is associated with cognitive control deficits and symptom severity in internet gaming disorder (2015)
  65. Video game training and the reward system (2015)
  66. Decreased Prefrontal Lobe Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder: A Primary Study Using Resting-State fMRI (2015)
  67. Functional characteristics of the brain in college students with internet gaming disorder (2015)
  68. The alteration of gray matter volume and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder (2015)
  69. An fMRI study of cognitive control in problem gamers (2015)
  70. Altered resting-state functional connectivity of the insula in young adults with Internet gaming disorder (2015)
  71. Imbalanced functional link between executive control network and reward network explain the online-game seeking behaviors in Internet gaming disorder (2015)
  72. Is the Internet gaming-addicted brain close to be in a pathological state? (2015)
  73. Altered Cardiorespiratory Coupling in Young Male Adults with Excessive Online Gaming (2015)
  74. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience (2015)
  75. The Effects of Video Games on Cognition and Brain Structure: Potential Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders (2015)
  76. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder (2015)
  77. Abnormal prefrontal cortex resting state functional connectivity and severity of internet gaming disorder (2015)
  78. Neurophysiological features of Internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder: a resting-state EEG study (2015)
  79. Game addiction (2015)
  80. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (2015)
  81. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling (2015)
  82. Brain connectivity and psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder (2015)
  83. Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use (2015)
  84. Impact of videogame play on the brain’s microstructural properties: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (2016)
  85. Activation of the ventral and dorsal striatum during cue reactivity in Internet gaming disorder (2016)
  86. Brain connectivity and psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder (2016)
  87. Frontostriatal circuits, resting state functional connectivity and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder (2016)
  88. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (2016)
  89. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction (2016)
  90. Network-Based Analysis Reveals Functional Connectivity Related to Internet Addiction Tendency (2016)
  91. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Insula and Nucleus Accumbens in Internet Gaming Disorder: A Resting State fMRI Study (2016)
  92. Violence-related content in video game may lead to functional connectivity changes in brain networks as revealed by fMRI-ICA in young men (2016)
  93. Attentional bias in excessive Internet gamers: Experimental investigations using an addiction Stroop and a visual probe (2016)

Third section: Internet addiction brain studies demonstrating cause:

Three studies from the above lists followed Internet addicts through recovery. All found a *reversal* of the bio-markers & symptoms:

  1. Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event related potentials P300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction (2012)
  2. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. (2011)
  3. P300 change and cognitive behavioral therapy in subjects with Internet addiction disorder: A 3 month follow-up study (2011)
  4. Virtual reality therapy for internet gaming disorder (2014)

Methodologies include - removing porn use; assessing users over time; assessing non-users after use.

  1. A Love That Doesn't Last: Pornography Consumption and Weakened Commitment to One's Romantic Partner (2012)
  2. Early adolescent boys’ exposure to internet pornography: Relationships to pubertal timing, sensation seeking, and academic performance (2014)
  3. Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting (2015)
  4. Effect of Pathological Use of the Internet on Adolescent Mental Health (2010)
  5. Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder (2011)
  6. The exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of Internet addiction among adolescents: A prospective study (2014)
  7. Internet abusers associate with a depressive state but not a depressive trait (2013)
  8. Health officials and university experts in Swansea have found new evidence that excessive use of the internet can cause mental health problems (2015)