INTERNET & VIDEO GAME ADDICTION BRAIN STUDIES

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Below is the current list of Internet addiction brain studies. Without exception, all studies have found addiction-related brain changes in Internet addicts. The two studies that followed former Internet addicts saw a reversal of brain changes. At this time, only one study has examined the brains of compulsive porn users: Cambridge University: Brain scans find porn addiction.

First section: Internet addiction brain studies:

  1. Influence of excessive internet use on auditory event-related potential (2008)
  2. Decision-making and prepotent response inhibition functions in excessive internet users (2009)
  3. Gray Matter Abnormalities In Internet Addiction: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study (2009)
  4. Impulse inhibition in people with Internet addiction disorder: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study (2010)
  5. Differentiation of Internet addiction risk level based on autonomic nervous responses: the Internet-addiction hypothesis of autonomic activity (2010)
  6. Increased regional homogeneity in internet addiction disorder a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study (2010)
  7. Reduced Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptors in People With Internet Addiction (2011)
  8. Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder. (2011)
  9. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests (2011)
  10. P300 change and cognitive behavioral therapy in subjects with Internet addiction disorder: A 3 month follow-up study (2011)
  11. Male Internet addicts show impaired executive control ability evidence from a color-word: Stroop task (2011)
  12. Pornographic Picture Processing Interferes with Working Memory Performance (2012)
  13. Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event related potentials P300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction (2012)
  14. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study (2012)
  15. Reduced Striatal Dopamine Transporters in People with Internet Addiction Disorder (2012)
  16. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: Possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI (2012)
  17. Impaired inhibitory control in internet addiction disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (2012)
  18. Impaired Error-Monitoring Function in People with Internet Disorder: An Event-Related fMRI Study (2013)
  19. Comparison of Psychological Symptoms and Serum Levels of Neurotransmitters in Shanghai Adolescents with and without Internet Addiction Disorder: A Case-Control Study (2013)
  20. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction (2013)
  21. Impaired Error-Monitoring Function in People with Internet Addiction Disorder: An Event-Related fMRI Study (2013).
  22. Effects of Internet Addiction on Heart Rate Variability in School-Aged Children (2013)
  23. An Error-Related Negativity Potential Investigation of Response Monitoring Function in Individuals with Internet Addiction Disorder (2013)
  24. Brains online structural and functional correlates of habitual Internet use (2014)

Second section: Internet video-game addiction brain studies:

  1. Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game (1998)
  2. Dopamine genes and reward dependence in adolescents with excessive internet video game play (2007)
  3. Specific cue reactivity on computer game related cues in excessive gamers (2007)
  4. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction (2008).
  5. The effect of excessive internet use on N400 event-related potentials (2008)
  6. The effect of methylphenidate on Internet video game play in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (2009)
  7. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (2010)
  8. Altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in internet game overusers: a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study (2010)
  9. Changes in Cue Induced Prefrontal Cortex Activity with Video Game Play. (2010)
  10. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. (2011)
  11. Cue induced positive motivational implicit response in young adults with internet gaming addiction (2011)
  12. Enhanced Reward Sensitivity and Decreased Loss Sensitivity in Internet Addicts: An fMRI Study During a Guessing Task (2011)
  13. Brain activity and desire for Internet video game play (2011)
  14. Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: Do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions? (2011)
  15. The neural basis of video gaming (2011)
  16. Influence of dopaminergic system on internet addiction (2011)
  17. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction (2012)
  18. Attentional bias and disinhibition toward gaming cues are related to problem gaming in male adolescents. (2012)
  19. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting state brain activity in internet gaming addicts. (2012)
  20. The brain activations for both cue-induced gaming urge and smoking craving among subjects comorbid with Internet gaming addiction and nicotine dependence. (2012)
  21. Brain fMRI study of crave induced by cue pictures in online game addicts (male adolescents) (2012)
  22. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts (2012).
  23. A voxel based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts (2012)
  24. Cortical Thickness Abnormalities in Late Adolescence with Online Gaming Addiction (2013)
  25. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction (2013)
  26. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction (2013).
  27. Cognitive flexibility in internet addicts: fMRI evidence from difficult-to-easy and easy-to-difficult switching situations (2013)
  28. Altered default network resting-state functional connectivity in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (2013)
  29. Reduced orbitofrontal cortical thickness in male adolescents with internet addiction (2013)
  30. Reward/punishment sensitivities among internet addicts: Implications for their addictive behaviors (2013).
  31. Just watching the game ain't enough: striatal fMRI reward responses to successes and failures in a video game during active and vicarious playing (2013)
  32. What makes Internet addicts continue playing online even when faced by severe negative consequences? Possible explanations from an fMRI study (2013)
  33. Voxel-level comparison of arterial spin-labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with internet gaming addiction (2013).
  34. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives (2013)
  35. Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study (2014)

Third section: Internet addiction brain studies demonstrating cause:

Only two studies from the above lists followed Internet addicts through recovery. Both found a *reversal* of the bio-markers in former addicts:

  1. Effects of electroacupuncture combined psycho-intervention on cognitive function and event related potentials P300 and mismatch negativity in patients with internet addiction (2012)
  2. Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects. (2011)

This study examined subjects "before Internet use and after one year of use'. It found Internet addiction was the *cause* of multiple symptoms:

  1. Precursor or Sequela: Pathological Disorders in People with Internet Addiction Disorder (2011)